Ammonia from Hydrogen
Using the Haber Bosch process, ammonia has been produced from hydrogen and nitrogen from the air around us since 1910. This process works optimally at a very high pressure and heat, making the energy requirement for producing ammonia significant. Because this process requires 3 times as much hydrogen as nitrogen, the production of hydrogen from natural gas is commonly used. Methane from natural gas is converted to carbon monoxide and hydrogen by steam (water). The carbon monoxide is then again converted by water back into hydrogen and CO2.
This form of producing hydrogen, by using natural gas as a base and generating steam, is a large consumer of energy. About 200 million tons of ammonia are produced per year with an energy requirement of about 1.5% of total energy production. The ammonia produced is mostly used for fertilizer production.